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Nepal: Family Planning

1. Knowledge of Contraception

Percent of ever married and currently married women who know specific contraceptive methods, Nepal 1996

Contraceptive Methods Ever married women Currently married women
Any method  98.4 98.4
Any modern method 98.3 98.3
Pill
80.0 80.5
IUD
36.6 35.9
Injectables
84.8 85.0
Diaphragm/Foam/Jelly
28.2 28.3
Condom
74.8 75.3
Female sterilization
96.3 96.3
Male sterilization
89.8 89.7
Norplant
57.0 57.3
Any traditional method 43.9 44.4
Periodic abstinence
36.6 37.0
Withdrawal
28.7 29.1
Other methods
2.7 2.8
Source: NFHS, Nepal 1996

Trend:
Percent of Currently Married Women Who Know Specific Contraceptive Methods,
Nepal 1976-1996

Method 1976

NFS

1981

NCPS

1986

NFFS

1991

NFHS

1996

NFHS

Any modern method 21.3 51.9 55.9 92.7 98.3
Pill 12.0 25.1 27.8 65.8 80.5
IUD 6.0 8.4 6.7 24.1 35.9
Injectables NA 9.0 13.5 64.7 85.0
Diaphragm/Foam/Jelly NA NA NA 19.0 28.3
Condom 4.8 13.6 16.8 51.6 75.3
Female sterilization 13.0 44.4 51.2 88.8 96.3
Male sterilization 15.7 38.1 43.1 85.3 89.7
Norplant NA NA NA 34.6 57.3
NA = not applicable
Source: Ministry of Health, Nepal 1996
 

2. Current use of family planning

Trend:
Percentage of Currently Married non-pregnant Women Age 15-49 Who Reported Using Modern Contraceptive Methods, Nepal 1976-1996
Method 1976

NFS

1981

NCPS

1986

NFFS

1991

NFHS

1996

NFHS

Any modern method 2.9 7.6 15.1 24.1 28.81

 

Female sterilization 0.1 2.6 6.8 12.1 13.3
Male sterilization 1.9 3.2 6.2 7.5 6.0
Pill 0.5 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.5
Injectables 0.0 0.1 0.5 2.3 5.0
Condom 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.6 2.1
Norplant NA NA NA 0.3 0.5
IUD 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3
NA = not applicable
1 Includes users of vaginal methods (diaphragm, foam, jelly)
Source: Ministry of Health, Nepal 1996

3. Distribution of Contraceptive Use in Nepal

Current Use of Any Modern Contraceptive Methods by Characteristics,
Nepal 1996
1. Urban Vs. Rural  Urban
Rural 
50.1
26.5 
2. Ecological Region  Mountain
Hill
Terai 
17.8
29.6
29.0 
3. Development Region  Eastern
Central
Western
Mid-Western
Far Western 
30.8
31.0
26.5
26.9
20.8 
4. Educational Level  No education
Primary 
Some secondary
SLC and above 
26.4
30.8
39.6
52.0 
5. Literacy  Illiterate
Literate 
25.7
38.7 
6. Number of living children None
1
2
3
4+ 
3.4
11.7
30.6
39.6
38.5 
7. Age of women  15-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49 
6.5
15.8
30.7
39.0
42.7
40.7
27.9 

4. Sources of supply for modern contraceptive methods

Percent distribution of currently married women currently using modern contraceptive methods by most recent sources of the method, Nepal 1996
Sources of supply 
Percent 
Public
Hospital/District clinic
Primary health care
Family planning clinic
Health post
Sub-health post 
Mobile clinic 
Mobil camp
Other public 
79.0
32.4
2.1
0.9
7.7
5.8
0.8
28.3
1.1 
Private medical 
Private hospital
Clinic/Nursing home
FPAN
Pharmacy
Community health volunteer
Other private 
14.1
2.4
1.2
5.3
4.3
0.5
0.4 
Other sources
Female community health volunteer
Shop
Friends/relatives
Other
Don't know/missing 
5.6
1.5
1.0
0.2
3.0
1.3 
Source: NFHS, 1996

5. Reasons for Non-use

Percent distribution of currently married women who were not using a contraceptive method and who do not intend to use in the future, by main reason for not intending to use, according to age, Nepal 1996
Reasons
Age
Total
  <30 30-49
Infrequent sex 4.3 7.9 6.8
Menopausal/hysterectomy 0.7 25.8 18.5
Subfecund/infecund 2.4 6.4 5.2 
Wants more children 35.4 7.2 15.3
Respondent opposed 6.9 3.8 4.7
Husband opposed 6.7 3.3 4.3
Others opposed 0.8 0.1 0.3
Religious prohibition 16.2 5.7 8.7 
Knows no method 4.1 1.6 2.3
Knows no source 1.8 1.5 1.6
Health concerns 2.4 7.4 6.0
Fear of side effects 13.0 16.7 15.7
Interferes with body 0.5 0.3 0.4
Lack of access 0.4 0.5 0.5
Costs too much 0.3 0.1 0.2
Other 1.4 11.3 8.4 
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
Number of women 569 1,396 1,966
Source: NFHS, 1996

6. Exposure to family planning message on radio and television
Radio is a more effective media than television in Nepal because television services are mostly limited to urban areas. More than half (53%) women heard family planning message on the radio or television in the month before the interview. About 11 percent women had heard family planning message on both media whereas 40 percent had heard on radio only and only 1.6 percent had on television only.

The urban women were 6 times more likely to hear family planning message on both radio and television compared to rural women. About 80 percent women had heard FP messages either on radio or television compared to only about half of the rural women.

The percent of women who had heard FP message either on radio or television was higher in hills (66.0%) compared to mountains (50.0%) and terai (42.5%).
Source: NFHS, 1996

Percentage distribution of ever-married women by exposure to family planning message on radio and/or television by background characteristics, Nepal 1996

Background 
Heard on both 
on Radio only 
on Television only 
Urban
Rural 
45.7
8.0 
24.1
41.5 
8.5
0.9 
Mountain
Hill
Terai 
3.1
12.1
11.7
46.7
53.0
28.2 
0.2
0.9
2.3 
No education
Primary
Some Secondary
SLC and above 
6.5
18.4
38.7
60.1 
38.8
50.3
43.5
28.4 
0.9
3.2
4.9
6.1 
Literate
Illiterate 
30.0
6.3 
49.1
37.7 
4.0
1.0 
Source: NFHS, 1996
 

7. Specific family planning shows on radio

Percentage Distribution of Ever-married Women by Exposure to Specific Program,
Nepal 1996
Background Characteristics
Public Health Program
Cut Your ... Drama Serial
Cut Your ... 
the song
Husband-wife communication spot
Age        
15-19
23.5
19.8
18.8
24.7
20-24
28.1
23.3
23.8
28.8
25-29
25.7
20.3
19.9
27.2
30-34
25.3
22.2
20.5
26.9
35-39
23.9
21.8
21.3
24.4
40-44
22.0
20.1
20.6
22.0
45-49
21.1
19.6
19.5
21.5
Residence        
Urban
42.6
31.1
26.7
43.1
Rural
23.1
20.3
20.3
24.1
Ecological Region
Mountain
19.7
20.6
22.7
23.3
Hill
32.6
29.4
28.7
35.2
Terai
18.8
14.4
13.9
17.9
Education        
No education
19.7
17.6
17.9
20.5
Primary
35.6
30.3
27.8
37.6
Some secondary
52.9
42.6
38.7
52.7
SLC and above
65.2
42.0
38.2
67.0
Total
24.7
21.2
20.8
25.7
Source: NFHS, 1996

Notes:
"Public Health Program" is Ministry of Health, National Health Education, Information and Communication Center's radio program. It covers family planning as well as other health related contents.

"Cut your Coat According to Your Cloth (Ghanti heri hadd nilau)" drama serial was launched in last week of November, 1995 by the National Health Education, Information and Communication Center, Ministry of Health, Nepal with technical assistance from the JohnsHopkins University/Population Communication Services Nepal. The data for the NFHS 1996 were collected after few months (2-6) of drama serial launched.

8. Unmet Need

Unmet need for family planning in Nepal
Unmet need to
Met need to Total demand to
Space Limit Total Space Limit Total Space Limit Total
14.3 17.1 31.4 2.6 25.9 28.5 16.9 43.0 59.9
Source: NFHS, 1996

Unmet need by background characteristics, Nepal 1996

Background Unmet need to Met need to Total demand to
Characteristics Space  Limit Total Space Limit Total Space Limit Total
Place of Residence
Urban 7.4 14.3 21.7 6.5 43.5 50.1 14.0 57.8 71.8
Rural 14.9 17.4 32.3 2.2 24.3 26.5 17.1 41.6 58.8
Ecological Region
Mountain 13.9 20.3 34.2 2.2 15.6 17.8 16.1 36.0 52.0
Hill 14.3 18.7 33.1 3.0 26.6 29.6 17.3 45.3 62.6
Terai 14.2 15.4 29.6 2.3 26.7 29.0 16.6 42.0 58.6
Education
No education 12.7 18.4 31.1 1.7 24.7 26.4 14.4 43.1 57.5
Primary 21.1 15.0 36.2 3.7 27.2 30.8 24.8 42.2 67.0
Some secondary 21.2 9.6 30.9 7.4 32.3 39.6 28.6 41.9 70.5
SLC and above 14.3 6.9 21.2 12.4 39.6 52.0 26.8 46.5 73.2
Number of living children
0 22.9 0.2 23.1 2.8 0.6 3.4 25.7 0.8 26.5
1 32.0 3.4 35.4 7.5 4.2 11.7 39.5 7.6 47.1
2 18.2 13.8 32.1 3.4 27.2 30.6 21.7 41.0 62.7
3 9.2 20.1 29.3 1.5 38.1 39.9 10.7 58.2 68.9
4+ 3.2 30.3 33.5 0.4 38.2 38.5 3.6 68.4 72.0
Total 14.3 17.1 31.4 2.6 25.9 28.5 16.9 43.0 59.9
Source: NFHS, 1996

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